To fix Stardew Valley failure to open/launch on Windows 10 you have to install and update some pre-requisite components.
These components are needed to run the game especially on Windows 10 namely .net frameworks, xna frameworks, direct x, etc.
I have compiled the redist pack into an archive which can be downloaded below.
Stardew Valley Fix for Windows 10
- Download and extract the redist pack on a folder.
- Open the folder, _Redist upon extraction, and install all the setup files in the folder.
- Run the dxwebsetup.exe (DirectX web setup which requires internet connection) will install the update direct x component for the graphics requirements of Stardew Valley, next the oalinst.exe, followed by vcredist_x86 setup (Microsoft Visual C++ Redistributable Package) and lastly the xnafx40_redist setup.
- Once done, reboot your computer and relaunch Stardew Valley and see if that fixes the issue.